EXPLOSIVE PRE–WORKOUT PERFORMANCE ACCELERATORHOW DOES PRE WORK?Builds explosiveness, power, and strength.*Enhances endurance and increases reps.*Accelerates performance and recovery.*Supercharges mental focus and acuity.*No proprietary blends and full label disclosure.7GLeucine &Creatine3.2GBetaAlanine7.8GNitric; OxideBoosters28GActiveIngredientsACCOLADES >WE PUT 16 YEARS INTO YOUR LAST REPNutraBio®launched the first ever no proprietary blend, fully dosed preworkout back in 2002. For the last 16 years since, we've continuously improved this formula with a singular motivation: your gains. Packed with 27 grams of clinically dosed ingredients, PRE will push you further than ever before. Feel the difference that honest, transparent, fully loaded supplements will make in your training.TRAIN WITHOUT COMPROMISENutraBio PRE was formulated with a single goal in mind. To create the absolutely most effective, thorough, and purest pre-workout in existence...period. We can say without a doubt this goal has been accomplished, making PRE the most powerful pre-workout on the market today. PRE is built upon clinically dosed and scientifically backed ingredients proven to maximize workout performance and produce results. Athletes of all levels realize that in order achieve the most effective training session that energy, strength, endurance, and focus are a must. A complete pre-workout supplement should support all of these benefits. The synergistic combination of ingredients found in PRE help prepare your body physiologically and psychologically by amplifying energy, enhancing the mind-muscle connection, and supporting increases in muscular strength, power, and endurance. From top to bottom PRE will help keep you training stronger and longer. Take a deeper look into PRE and you will find:Clinical doses of 22 research-backed ingredientsCaffeine anhydrous and Infinergy Di-Caffeine Malate to boost energy, enhance focus, and provide greater training intensity. All without a caffeine crash.Beta-Alanine to increase endurance and help counteract fatigue caused by hydrogen ion accumulation.Pharmapure creatine monohydrate for greater strength, power, and muscle growth. Creatine MagnaPower for increased solubility and absorption.L-Leucine to help prevent muscle catabolism and lessen recovery time between sessions.Theapure L-Theanine. When combined with caffeine promotes enhanced cognition and attention.Huperzine A to promote a strong mind-muscle connection and supercharge mental focus.Betaine anhydrous to support creatine production, increase power and strength output, and protect cells from dehydration.Agmatine sulfate and Nitrosigine to stimulate nitric oxide pathways leading to greater vasodilation and bigger muscle pumps.Electrolyte and hydration optimizer that helps maintain water balance in the muscle, facilitates motor neuron function, and increase exercise capacity.Since day one NutraBio has never been happy maintaining the status quo when it comes to pre-workouts. We have always been the innovators; not the replicators. Although the industry makes it seems like non-proprietary blends, proper dosing, and scientifically backed ingredients are something new; the fact is NutraBio pioneered this trend over 15 years ago starting with our original PRE formula. We focused on creating the best, and we've done just that with our latest version of PRE. PRE has everything you need in one comprehensive, open label, clinically dosed formula and nothing you don't. We pride ourselves on purity. What you see on the label is exactly what you get. PRE contains no fillers, excipients, proprietary blends, or other potentially unhealthy or unneeded additives. At the end of the day, NutraBio isn't just about marketing hype and trying to maximize our profit. It's all about giving athletes what they want to meet their performance needs by giving them access to clean supplements that are innovative and effective. Like you, we want to train hard and see the results of our efforts. Compare NutraBio PRE to any other pre-workout on the market and ask yourself whose formula was created WITHOUT COMPROMISE. We think you'll find that even the most "self-proclaimed" strongest formulated pre-workouts pale in comparison to PRE. Game over. NutraBio PRE dominates the pre-workout landscape.Still not convinced NutraBio PRE will take your workout to the next level? Check out an independent review of PRE from the folks at Price Plow.Also readwhy PRE made it into PricePlow's 2016 best pre-workout supplement list.The Science Behind NutraBio PREA closer look at the 18 ingredients and doses used to make NutraBio PRE the premier pre-workout on the market.POWER, STRENGTH & ENDURANCE COMPLEXL-LEUCINELeucine is one of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAA). By itself it can stimulate muscle protein synthesis; the process responsible for muscle growth and recovery. This is why it is often referred to as the "main" amino acid.Supplementation with at least 2/grams daily leucine has been shown decrease muscle soreness, lessen recovery time between workouts, and increase lean muscle mass.Howatson et al. (2012) discovered that leucine (combined with isoleucine and valine) administered before muscle damaging resistance exercises reduced indices of muscle damage and accelerated recovery in resistance trained males.NutraBio's leucine is derived from fermented vegetables sources as opposed to animal based sources.BETA ALANINEBeta-alanine (BA) is a version of the amino acid alanine which serves as the precursor to carnosine (ß-alanyl-L-histidine) in skeletal muscle. Supplementing with BA is a highly effective means of increasing muscle carnosine content. Increased muscle carnosine helps buffer the negative side effects of hydrogen ion accumulation in muscles as exercise intensity increases.Beta-Alanine supplementation has been linked to improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue at higher intensities in both trained and untrained individuals in events lasting 1-4 minutes.Increases in lean muscle mass and muscular endurance have also been noted with supplementation.A recent meta-analysis confirmed the ergogenic effect of beta-alanine, showing a 2.85% increase in exercise performance compared to placebo when dosed at ~2/grams daily.PHARMAPURE CREATINE MONOHYDRATE & CREATINE MAGNAPOWERCreatine is an amino acid (broken down protein) derived compound produced in the body that serves as the primary fuel source (ATP) for short duration, high intensity activities such as sprinting and weight lifting. Creatine is stored primarily in muscle tissue, and it is used for rephosphorylating ADP into ATP. This means that when our muscles use up our energy stores, creatine helps to replenish those stores in a fairly rapid manner. Approximately 2 grams of creatine are found in individuals that do not supplement and maintain a diet including animal based proteins. Those who do supplement can increase their body's internal creatine pool by 10 to 40% depending on diet and total lean muscle mass.As a whole creatine is arguably the most extensively researched and effective supplement available today. Over 500 studies exist of the ergogenic benefits of creatine supplementation with over 70% of these studies producing significant improvements in performance without any detrimental side effects.Creatine has been proven to increase lean muscle mass, maximal strength, power, and muscular endurance.Creatine may also help keep you hydrated in extreme outdoor conditionsEmerging research suggest creatine may provide cognitive and overall brain health benefits.Creatine MagnaPower is more soluble than creatine monohydrate and in theory should absorb better; requiring a lower dose to achieve the same ergogenic benefits as creatine monohydrate.The ISSN (International Society of Sports Nutrition) position stand on creatine monohydrate (CM) found that short-term CM supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power/strength (5–15%), work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (5–15%), single-effort sprint performance (1–5%), and work performed during repetitive sprint performance (5–15%). Long-term CM supplementation appears to enhance the overall quality of training, leading to 5 to 15% greater gains in strength and performance.BETAINE ANHYDROUSBetaine, scientifically referred to as Trimethylglycine, is a metabolite of choline. Betaine's two main functions in the body are as a methyl donor and osmolyte. As an osmolyte, betaine protects proteins, cells, and enzymes from heat, dehydration, and other physiological stresses. As a methyl donor, betaine is used to convert homocysteine to L-methionine, and is therefore, a precursor to creatine.Doses of 2500-6000mg betaine daily may increase muscular strength, endurance, and total training volume.Betaine also plays a role in hepatic fat metabolism, promoting muscle protein synthesis, and has been suggested to increase nitric oxide levels.A study conducted by the University of Connecticut found that individuals supplementing with 1.25 grams of betaine twice/daily increased bench press power 20%.DL MALIC ACIDMalic acid plays a vital role in the Krebs cycle where it helps turn carbs, proteins, and fats into energy.If there is an inadequate supply of malic acid in the body the Krebs cycle cannot function properly which leads to premature fatigue.NITRIC OXIDE PUMP MATRIXL-CITRULLINEL-Citrulline is an amino acid that plays an important role in nitric oxide metabolism and regulation.It is converted to L-Arginine in the body to support L-Arginine and nitric oxide levels.Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) promotes vascular dilation which improves oxygen and blood circulation throughout the body.L-Citrulline is also expected to relieve muscle fatigue through ammonia elimination.A 2015 study conducted by Bailey et al. found subjects who supplemented with 6000mg L-Citrulline for 7 days were able to improve oxygen uptake and performance during high-intensity exercise.AGMATINE SULFATEAgmatine Sulfate is a byproduct of Arginine through decarboxylation. It produces other byproducts that are involved in cell growth, structural and metabolic support to the nervous system.Decarboxylated arginine cannot be broken down in the liver and consequently increases blood flow to working muscles through vasodilation.Agmatine has also been shown to manipulate pain receptors which may allow you to train past normal pain thresholds.PRE uses a vegan source of agmatine that us derived from fermented plants.INOSITOL ARGININE SILICATE (AS NITROSIGINE)Nitrosigine is a bonded complex of arginine and silicon that helps enhance nitric oxide levels to a greater degree compared to arginine alone.Increased nitric oxide levels promote the relaxation of smooth muscle in blood vessels, increasing blood flow to working muscles.In pre-clinical studies nitrosigine was found to be more biologically active than arginine chloride. The research also showed enhanced blood flow during and after exercise which may help with muscle growth and recovery.FOCUS, DRIVE, & STIMULATION COMPLEXL-TYROSINETyrosine is an essential amino acid whose primary role in the body is as the direct precursor to thyroxine and to the hormones dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.Tyrosine may improve both endurance and anaerobic performance via metabolic and/or neurotransmitter upregulation.Tyrosine also improves mental acuity, focus, and mood by increasing levels of catecholamines found in the bloodstream.A study done at the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory reported that a dose of L-Tyrosine, when provided to sleep deprived subjects, ameliorated psychomotor performance declines associated with mental fatigue.CHOLINE BITARTRATE (VitaCholine®)Choline Bitartrate is formed when choline is combined with tartaric acid.This increases the choline's bioavailability and in turn, makes it more effective.When supplemented, choline bitartrate increases levels of acetylcholine in the body....a neurotransmitter that stimulates muscle contractions and is required for proper memory, cognition, and motor control.Increasing choline levels can produce a nootropic type effect as well as create longer and stronger muscle contractions.CAFFEINE ANHYDROUS and INFINERGY DI-CAFFEINE MALATECaffeine, like creatine, it one of the most studied and proven ergogenic (performance enhancing) aids. Although caffeine can affect a wide variety of motor and mental functions it is most commonly used to improve endurance exercise, focus and cognitive performance, and improve energy levels. Caffeine has also been shown to have a thermogenic effect (heating/calorie burning) at rest and may increase the use of fats for fuel during exercise.Dicaffeine Malate, as the name implies, is the combination of caffeine and malic acid. Adding malic acid to caffeine is thought to calm the digestive effects of caffeine and thought to replenish the energy produced by caffeine (either through increased fat oxidation or ATP production). Malic acid may also weaken the feeling of a caffeine crash and slow tolerance development to caffeine.According to the research higher doses of caffeine, in the 250-450mg range, are needed to provide an ergogenic benefit.The ISSN position stand on caffeine concluded:Caffeine can act to enhance alertness and vigilance during times of exhaustive exercise that requires sustained focus.Caffeine is an effective ergogenic aid for sustained maximal endurance activity, and has also been shown to be very effective for enhancing time trial performance.Caffeine can enhance, not inhibit, glycogen resynthesis during the recovery phase of exercise.Caffeine is beneficial for high-intensity exercise of prolonged durationTHEAPURE (L-THEANINE)L-Theanine is an amino acid, that when consumed produces GABA and glutamate, two neurotransmitters that act on the brain to reduce the perception stress.Research suggests that L-Theanine's biggest supplemental role may be in taking the "edge" off of other stimulants.A combination of L-Theanine with caffeine is noted to be synergistic in promoting cognition and attention.Giesbrecht et al. found the combination of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching, self-reported alertness, and reduced self-reported tiredness.HUPERZINE AHuperizine A is a selective inhibitor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which means it prevents the breakdown and increases the amount of acetylcholine; an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system involved in cognition and muscular contractions.Multiple studies have shown that supplementation with Huperzine-A can enhance focus, memory and mood.A study conducted by Sun et al. (1999) reported that subjects who supplemented with Huperzine A for 4 weeks improved learning performance and memort compared to a placebo group.ELECTROLYTE & HYDRATION OPTIMIZERTAURINETaurine is one of the most important, useful, and safest amino acids. Taurine is best known for its beneficial effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Early clinical research also suggests that taurine, in combination with caffeine, can produce improvements in mental performance. When the body engages in extreme physical activity, it no longer will be able to produce the necessary amounts of taurine, therefore supplementation becomes necessary.Taurine is involved in the regulation of core body temperature and may help prevent heat stress and stroke.Taurine is also acts is an osmolyte; assisting the body in maintaining proper water balance.Zhang et al. (2004) found that individuals who supplemented with taurine for 1 week before an exhaustive exercise bout significantly improved time to exhaustion, VO2 max, and maximal workload. It also decreased exercise induced DNA damage.CALCIUM POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE CITRATE (AS CALCI-K) & SODIUM PHOSPHATECalcium, potassium, and phosphorus are vital electrolytes needed to maintain bodily water balance and facilitate motor neuron function.The combination of these electrolytes in CALCI-K are highly soluble and readily absorbed by the body.Electrolytes have been shown to prevent muscle cramps and are essential to normal muscular contractions.As we exercise electrolytes are lost through sweat and must be replaced in order to prevent decreases in performanceSims et al. (2007) discovered that pre-exercise ingestion of a high-sodium beverage increased plasma volume before exercise and involved less thermoregulatory and perceived strain during exercise and increased exercise capacity in warm conditions.